In mineralogy, diamond is a metastable allotrope of carbon, where the carbon atoms are organized in a variation of the face-centered cubic crystal structure called a diamond lattice. Ruby is less secure than graphite, yet the conversion rate from ruby to graphite is negligible at typical problems. Diamond is renowned as a material with outstanding physical high qualities, the majority of which stem from the strong covalent bonding between its atoms. Specifically, ruby has the highest solidity and thermal conductivity of any type of mass material. Those properties figure out the major industrial application of diamond in cutting and polishing tools and the scientific applications in diamond blades and ruby anvil cells.
As a result of its exceptionally stiff lattice, it could be polluted by really few kinds of contaminations, such as boron and nitrogen. Percentages of defects or impurities (concerning one per million of lattice atoms) shade ruby blue (boron), yellow (nitrogen), brownish (lattice problems), environment-friendly (radiation direct exposure), purple, pink, red or orange. Diamond also has reasonably high optical dispersion (ability to disperse light of various colors).